Bari: Laterza, iy Gerusalemme Liberata. Predi Chiapcili. Milano: Rusconi, In Prose. Ettore Mazzali.
Whereas the original title places the stress of "coscienza" conscience, awareness the English transla- tion privileges the confessional and diary-like form of the novel. In one sense De Zoete is correct because the two meanings can be said to converge in that Zeno's "coscienza" is confessed in the diary which is the novel. This conver- gence, however, is only apparent because the privileging of the confessional aspect of the novel not only underplays the awareness but also displaces it. De Zoete' emphasis on confession presupposes already a psychoanalytical read- ing of the novel or, simply, that the psychoanalytical is the dominant theme of the novel.
Zeno's remark, "Ricordo tutto, ma non intendo niente" "I remember everything, but I don't understand anything," , is apropos. It can easily be read as a statement that cries out for an analyst to interpret and understand.
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Doctor S. As every reader of the novel knows, the text often functions independently and despite Zeno Cosini 's received ideas of the world around him. When Zeno's actions are prompted by his desire to be and do what is naturally beyond the range of his possibilities, things always turn out to be the opposite of what he thinks to be the case.
In this ironic framework, Zeno is always the first victim of his pronouncements. His "coscienza" is always the result of an ironic predicament. The knowledge, in other words, that what we call "reality" is always different from what it initially appeared us to be.
Within this context, the statement "Ricordo tutto, ma non intendo niente" instead of signifying the condition of a divided self, could be taken as a statement on the precariousness of self-understanding that puts even psychoanalytical understanding into question. The philosopher, as some critics have suggested, is Zeno of Elea who set out, paradoxically, to demonstrate the impossibility of motion. In one of his most famous proofs, he claimed that Achilles, the fastest runner of the Greek world, could not win a race against a tortoise.
He argued that by the time Achilles caught up with the tortoise at a point A, the tortoise will have reached a point B. When Achilles covers the distance AB, the tortoise will have reached a point C, and so on to infinity. If we put aside for a moment the philosophical reasons behind Zeno of Elea's example, namely that it was meant to prove Parmenides' concept of plurality, the importance of the paradox for us is in the way it undermines our common expectations which dictate that anyone, and not just Achilles, is faster than a tortoise.
Zeno of Elea chooses on purpose the fastest man and the slowest animal to demonstrate, instead, that our sense of perception is not to be trusted.
Svevo, I would like to suggest, names his protagonist "Zeno" for similar reasons and in order to draw the reader's attention to a mode of representation which is patterned on the philosopher's method of proof. An indirect allusion to this method is made in an episode which explicitly parodies the Eleatic paradox. Tullio s'era rimesso a parlare della sua malattia ch'era anche la sua principale di- strazione. Aveva studiato l'anatomia della gamba e del piede.
Trasecolai e subito corsi col pensiero alle mie gambe a cercarvi la macchina mostruosa. Io credo di averla trovata. Il camminare era per me divenuto un lavoro pesante, e anche lievemente doloroso. A quel groviglio di congegni pareva mancasse ormai l'olio e che, muovendosi, si ledessero a vicenda. He had studied the anatomy of the leg and foot.
He told me with amusement that when one is walking rapidly each step takes no more than half a second, and in that half second no fewer than fifty-four muscles are set in motion. I listened in bewilderment. I at once directed my attention to my legs and tried to discover the infernal machine. I thought 1 had succeeded in finding it. I could not of course distinguish all its fifty-four parts, but I discovered something terribly complicated which seemed to lose its order as soon as I began paying attention to it. I limped as I left the cafe and for several days afterwards.
http://mygaytrip.com/acheter-azithromycin-et-chloroquine-online.php Walking had become a burden to me and even caused me a certain amount of pain. I felt as if that ma. A few days later I was struck by a greater calamity, which I will relate later, and which diminished the first one. But even today, if anyone watches me walking, the fifty-four movements get tied up in a knot, and I feel like falling. Zeno in becoming aware of what lies behind the appearances of things disrupts their apparent order and reveals the hidden "macchina mostruosa," namely a knowledge, that differs from our common, complacent way of looking at the world and that is no longer reassuring.
Just as Zeno limps, or is about to fall, as the result of his "attenzione," this knowledge of what actually lies behind the apparent order and logic of things makes it increasingly difficult forever after to live comfortably in the world. We shall return to the more pessimistic implications of Svevo's "coscienza" that shape the ending of the novel, for the moment we would like to identify this paradoxical approach with the ironic conscience of the novel which subverts in its wake man's mystified relation to the world.
In the chapter "II Fumo" "Smoking" , Zeno's futile efforts to quit smok- ing are a parody of man's desire for change and self-improvement that are destined to come to nought. With his resolve to stop smoking, Zeno hopes to become the strong and ideal man he has always wanted to be. Of course, the point of the chapter is to ex- pose the deluded notion that such a change can occur and that the weak-willed Zeno can emerge a new man.
Svevo parodies the traditional autobiographical novel, whose central theme is the self and its transformations, by reversing the relationship between the unique, meaningful event in the life of the self and the date that records it.
In the novel it is the date that suggest the possibility of change. Svevu ami ihc Ironic Conscience of the Novel 31 [I remember a date from the last century which seemed to mark forever the end of my vice: "Ninth day of the ninth month of The new century provided mc with other dates equally musical. In so doing Svevo draws attention to the date as a literary device as well as to the fiction of "una nuova vita" "a new life" , an indirect allusion to that model of all fictional autobiographies, Dante's Vita Nuova.
La coscienza di Zeno, how- ever, is a parody of the genre, an anti-autobiographical novel, not because the others are fictional and Svevo's novel is not. What is put into question by the parody is the fiction of a self caught in the illusion of temporality that makes the self believe in the possibility of change, that it can be other than it is.
When this deluded view is overcome in the old Zeno who writes the diary for the confessions, the acceptance of his smoking habit corresponds to the acceptance that time does not change but always repeats itself. Da me, solo da me, ritoma" "And anyway time for me is not that unimaginable thing that never stops. It always comes back to me, only to me," In Eleatic fashion, for the "cured" Zeno time is motionless.
Just as Achilles will never triumph over the tortoise, Zeno will never be the man he aspires to be. He is condemned to always be the weakling he knows himself to be.
Ironi- cally, however, it is this knowledge that for Svevo defines true health which he understands, paradoxically, as the awareness of being sick. Health, in other words, is achieved through an awareness of the mystifications to which the self is subject in time. Health is the result of an attention, an ironic conscience, that undermines the self's mystifications by arresting once and for all, in eleatic fashion, the temporal- ity that made it possible.
We shall return later to what he believes to be the remedy for man for all time. In the chapters that follow, "La storia del mio matrimonio" "The story of my marriage" , "La Moglie e l'Amante" "Wife and Mistress" and "Storia di un'associazione commerciale" "A Business Partnership" , Zeno's 'attention' is directed at subverting examples of "health" and "strength" that he identifies with those around him: his own father, the father-in-law Malfenti, Ada and Guido. In typical ironic fashion Zeno's first impression of these characters couldn't be further from the truth. The old Malfenti, whom Zeno believes to be a paragon of health, dies soon after.
Augusta, the ugly sister that Zeno discards as a possible mate, turns out to be the one he marries and the best catch. The beautiful Ada that Zeno pursues hopelessly later becomes sickly 32 Massimo Verdicchio and ugly when she contracts the "morbo di Basedow" "Basedow's disease". Guido, the paragon of strength and health in the novel, the strong and ideal man that Ada prefers to Zeno, turns out to be an unfaithful husband, inept in business and a despicable weakling who has to resort to feigning suicide to force his wife to help him financially.
He dies foolishly when his pretended suicide is not discovered in time. Zeno' s "fortune" undergoes similar changes. From being thought crazy and irresponsible he becomes respected and appreciated. From being com- pletely inept at conducting business affairs he pulls off a crucial business deal on the stock market making a large profit. Ada who at first dislikes him and rejects him later loves him.
Appearances, in other words, always prove to be deceptive and the fortune of the characters change radically to disprove Zeno' s first impressions.
As Zeno says of himself, he is "un buon osservatore ma un buon osservatore alquanto cieco" "a good observer but somewhat blind," The wheel of fortune, however, is never stable and if Zeno is now appreciated by his family for reasons not his own he is just as quickly put down for no reason. Ada eventually rejects Zeno accusing him unjustly of having hated Guido and of having made his death seem futile with his winnings on the stock market. Ada's false accusations have also a deeper meaning.
They represent a moment in the novel which is irreversible and fixed. Soon after Ada leaves to join Guido's family in Buenos Aires never to return again, her departure from the novel deprives Zeno of the opportunity to justify his conduct and to prove her his innocence.
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As far as the relationship with Ada is concerned, time has once again stopped, freezing in time a false image of Zeno that he will never be able to erase. In Ada's eyes Zeno has lost his innocence forever. The episode reiterates another, the death of Zeno's father, when Zeno is faced with a similar, irreversible experience. Zeno, following the doctor's advice makes sure that his sick, but restless father remains in bed but the father dies believing or so Zeno thinks that the son wants to keep him prisoner in bed. As in Ada's case similar examples are Ada's father's death and Guido's death , Zeno's father's death marks a fixed moment in time when change comes to a halt and Zeno is left in a predicament that he can no longer alter.
The death or departure of these characters prevent Zeno from proving to them that he is not what they think he is thus making it impossible for him to prove his innocence. Their "disappearance" condemns Zeno to "illness," that is, to endure a false image of himself forever. This situation provides us with another version of the Eleatic paradox which, if it may seem absurd in the case of Achilles and the tortoise, in the case of Zeno Cosini, or of any man for that matter, is a simple fact of life.
The brunt of Svevo's critique, and of Zeno's irony, however, is directed at psychoanalysis and at the promise of health that Freud's theories seem to guarantee. The insistence of some critics to read the novel from the point of view of psychoanalysis and to ignore the critique that Svevo gives of this discipline as only the quirk of a deluded neurotic goes only to emphasize how strong the desire of health is in everyone of us. Nor can the apparent critique of psychoanalysis be attributed to Zeno's "antipatia" "dislike" for his ana- lyst.
In Svevo's critique it is psychoanalysis's inability to discriminate between truth and lie which is in question. Svevo characterizes Doctor S. This is not to say that for Svevo man is a liar, but that very often, when words fail him, he says the first thing that comes to mind. Man speaks of one thing rather than another not because it may be important but because he easily forgets and says only the things for which he can find the words. Dio mio! Con ogni nostra parola toscana noi mentiamo! Se egli sapesse come raccontiamo con predilezione tutte le cose per le quali abbiamo pronta la frase e come evitiamo quelle che ci obbligherebbero di ricorrere al vocabolario!
Si capisce come la nostra vita avrebbe tutt'altro aspetto se fosse detta nel nostro dialetto.